Pashto (Afghani)

Achakzai, Naseem. 1986. Teach Yourself Pashto. Quetta: Bokhari Traders

Babrakzai, Farooq. 1999. Topics in Pashto Syntax. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai’i at Manoa

Bashir, Elena. 1991. A Contrastive Analysis of Pashto and Urdu. Washington, D.C.: Academy for Educational Development. (Prepared for the Directorates of Primary Education, NWFP and Balochistan by the Primary Education Development Program. December, 1991)

Bauer, E. 1998. “Several Groups of Pashto-Speakers in Pakistan’s Northern Areas. Different Ways of Dealing with Multilingual Surroundings.” I. Stellrecht (ed.). Karakorum-Hindukush- Himalaya: Dynamics of Change. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. (Culture Area Karakorum, Scientific Studies, 4)

Bausani, Alessandro & Bernard Blair. 1971. “Pashto Language and Literature.” Mahfil. A Quarterly of South Asian Literature 7/1-2:55-69

Bellew, Henry Walter. 1980. A Dictionary of the Pukkhto or Pushto Language, in which the words are traced to their sources in the Indian and Persian Languages. Karachi: Pakistan Publishing House [Reprint: New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 2001]

Bellew, Henry Walter. 1983. A Grammar of the Pukkhto or Pukshto Language. Peshawar: Saeed Book Bank & Subscription Agency

Bellew, Henry Walter. 1986 (ca. 1867). Pushto Instructor. A Grammar of the Pukhto or Pushto Language. Peshawar: Saeed Book Bank

Board of Scholars from the Afghan National Islamic Council in the United States of America. 2002. Dictionary English-Pushto, language of the Afghans = Inglisi-Pushtuqamus Revised edition. New Delhi: Star Publications

Bukhari, Khyal. 1964-1965. “Da Pashto Jabe Buniadi Mas’ale. The Basic Problems of the Pashto Language.” Peshawar: Pashto Academy. Pukhto 7-8/No. 3-4:119-234

Bukhari, Khyal. 1983. Da Pakhto Sarf-o-Nahaw. Pashto Grammar. Peshawar: University Book Agency

Darmesteter, James. 1890. Chants Populaires des Afghans. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, E. Leroux

Enevoldsen, Jens. 1969. Pakhto Proverbs and Tappas. Peshawar: University Book Agency

Grima, Benedicte. 1987. “Translating Pukhtun romance:  Sher Alem and Memuney.” Bashir, E., M. Deshpande, & and P.E. Hook (eds.), Select Papers from SALA-7: South Asian Languages Roundtable Conference held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, May 17-19, 1985. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Linguistics Club. 141-162.

Heston, W.L. 1987. “Pashto ambipositions and historical antecedents.” Bashir, E., M. Deshpande, & and P.E. Hook (eds.).  1987. Select Papers from SALA-7:  South Asian Languages Roundtable Conference held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, May 17-19, 1985. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Linguistics Club. 163-181.

Grünberg, Alexandr Leonovich. 1987. Ocherk Grammatiki Afganskogo Yazyka (Pashto). Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka”, Leningradskoye Otdeleniye

Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4)

Henderson, Michael M.T. 1983. “Four Varieties of Pashto.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 103/2:595-97

Heston, Wilma L. 1996. “Rhyme and Repetition. Pashto Poetry as Song.” William L. Hanaway & Wilma L. Heston (eds.). Studies in Pakistani Popular Culture. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel, with Lok Virsa. 289-338

Heston, Wilma L. & Mumtaz Nasir. 1987. The Bazaar of the Storytellers. Islamabad: Lok Virsa Publishing House

Inayat-ur-Rahman (tr.). 1984. Folktales of Swat. (Pashto and English). Peshawar: Inayat-ur-Rahman/IsMEO

Inozemtsev, Igor. “Pashto.” Facts About the World’s Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World’s Major Languages, Past and Present New York / Dublin: H.W. Wilson Company. 543-47

Jehani, Carina. 1986. Notes on Pashto Grammar and Orthography. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University

Leech, R. 1838. “A Vocabulary of the Laghmani, Tirahi, Highlands of Deer, Moghal Aimaks Dialect.” Calcutta. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 7:780-87

Leech, R. 1838. “Epitome of the Grammars of the Brahuiky, the Balochky and the Panjabi Languages. With Vocabularies of the Baraky, the Pashi, the Laghmani, the Cashgari, the Teerhai, and the Deer Dialects.” Calcutta. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 7:711-32

Lorenz, Manfred. 1979. Lehrbuch des Pashto (Afghanisch). Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie

Lorimer, John Gordon. 1902. Grammar and Vocabulary of Waziri Pashto. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendant of Government Printing, India

MacKenzie, D.N. 1959. “A Standard Pashto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 22:231-35

MacKenzie, D.N. 1987. “Pashto.” Bernard Comrie (ed.). World’s Major Languages. New York: Oxford University Press. 547-65

Morgenstierne, Georg. 1927. An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto. Oslo: Jacob Dybwad

Morgenstierne, Georg. 1942. “Archaisms and Innovations in Pushto Morphology.” Oslo. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap XII:88-114

Pence, James Monroe. 1968. A Tagmemic Grammar of Pashto Clause Structure. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms

Penzl, Herbert. 1955. A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies (Program in Oriental Languages Publications Series B, No. 2)

Penzl, Herbert. 1959. “Standard Pashto and Other Dialects of Pashto.” Afghanistan 14/3:8-14

Penzl, Herbert & Muhammad Rahim Elham. 1961. Da Pushto Grammar. Kabul, Afghanistan: Matb’i Dawlati

Rahman, Tariq. 1995. “The Pashto Language Movement and Identity Formation in Pakistan.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 4/26:151-70

Raverty, Henry George. 1856. A Grammar of the Pukhto, Pushto or Language of the Afghans. With Remarks on the Originality of the Language and its Affinity to the Semitic and Other Oriental Tongues. Calcutta: J. Thomas [Reprint: Peshawar: Saeed Book Bank, 1982]

Raverty, Henry George. 1867. A Dictionary of the Puk’hto, Pus’hto, or Language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language, and its affinity to other oriental tongues. 2nd edition. London: Williams and Norgate

Roberts, Taylor. 1997. The Optimal Second Position in Pashto. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT (MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 30)

Roberts, Taylor. 2000. Clitics and agreement. Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Distributed by MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. Abstract available at:

Roberts, Taylor. 2001. “Split-agreement and ergativity in Pashto.” Website

Roberts, Taylor. 2001. “Deriving second position.” Canadian Journal of Linguistics 46.1/2:127-53 (this article is about clitic placement in Pashto)

Septfonds, Daniel. 1989. “Du pashto standard au wanetsi: /Kawel/ ou /krel/? Note de dialectologie pashto.” C.-H. de Fouchecour & Ph. Gignoux (eds.). Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard. Paris: Assn. pour l’Avancement des Études Iraniennes. 297-313

Shafeev, D.A. 1964. A Short Grammatical Outline of Pashto. Bloomington: Indiana University

Skjaervo, Prods. 1989. “Modern East Iranian Languages.” Rüdiger Schmitt (ed.). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert. 370-83

Skjaervo, Prods. 1989. “Pashto.” Rüdiger Schmitt (ed.). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert. 384-410

Tegey, Habibullah. 1977. The Grammar of Clitics: Evidence from Pashto and Other Languages. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Tegey, Habibullah. 1978. The Grammar of Clitics. Kabul: International Center for Pashto Studies

Tegey, Habibullah. 1979. “Ergativity in Pushto (Afghani).” Irmengard Rauch & Gerald F. Carr (eds.). Linguistic Method: Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. 369-418

Tegey, Habibullah & Barbara Robson. 1996. A Reference Grammar of Pashto. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics, U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center

Trumpp, Ernst. 1873. Grammar of the Pashto or the Language of the Afghans, Compared with the Iranian and North Indian Idioms. London: Messrs. Trübner & Co.[ Reprint: Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag, 1969]

Weinreich, Matthias. 2001. "Die Pashto Sprecher des Karakorum. Zur Migrationsgeschichte einer ethno-linguistischen Minderheit". Jerewan – Tehran. Iran and the Caucasus 5:285 - 302.

Weinreich, Matthias. 2005. "Pashto im Karakorum. “Zur Sprachsituation und Sprache einer ethno-linguistischen Minderheit". Iran and the Caucasus 9.2: 301-30. Leiden / Boston: Brill.

Weinreich, Matthias. 2008. We Are Here to Stay. Pashtun Migrants in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. (Islamkundliche Untersuchungen 285).

Weinreich, Matthias. 2010. “Language Shift in Northern Pakistan: The Case of Domaakí and Pashto.” Iran and the Caucasus 14: 43-56.

Weinreich, Matthias & Mikhail Pelevin. 2012. “The Songs of the Taliban: Continuity of Form and Thought in an Ever-Changing Environment.” Iran and the Caucasus 16: 45-70.